Let that be as it may, he proceeds, priests must at any rate be guided in their conduct by the words of St. They lead to the disturbance of the natural prices of commodities and securities, do grave injury to producers and consumers of those commodities, and are frequently attended by such unlawful methods of influencing prices as the dissemination of false reports, cornering, and the fierce contests of "bulls" and "bears", i.
From very early times gambling was forbidden by canon law. Moreover, in ordinary parlance, a person who plays for small stakes to give zest to the game is not said to gamble; gambling connotes playing for high stakes.
It is wrong, therefore, for the lawyer to stake the money of his client, or for anyone to gamble with what is necessary for the maintenance of his wife and children. The saint, however, refused to admit the distinction, especially as the bishop was playing in public. If indulged in to excess it leads to loss of time, and usually of money; to an idle and useless life spent in the midst of bad company and unwholesome surroundings; and to scandal which is a source of sin and ruin to others.
On certain conditions, and apart from excess or scandalit is not sinful to stake money on the issue of a game of chance any more than it is sinful to insure one's property against risk, or deal in futures on the produce market.
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Farley, Archbishop of New York. As I may make a free gift of my own property to another if I choose, so I may agree with another to hand over to him a sum of money if the issue of a game of cards is other than I expect, while he agrees to do the same in my favour in the contrary event. Another, held at Narbonne indecreed that clerics were not to play at dice, cards, or other unlawful and unbecoming games, especially in public.
However, as Benedict XIV remarks, this can hardly be trueas in that case the penalties would have been still more severe.
Theologians commonly require four conditions so that gaming may not be illicit. The Plenary School of Maynooth, held insays that since not a little time is occasionally lost, and idleness is fostered by playing cards, the priest should be on his guard against such games, especially where money is staked, lest he incur the reproach of being a gambler.
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Finally, there must be some sort of equality between the parties to make the contract equitable; it would be unfair for a combination of two expert whist players to take the money of a couple of mere novices at the game. It panders to the craving for excitement and in many countries it has become so prevalent that it rivals drunkenness in its destructive effects on the lives of the people.
The council held at Aix in forbade them to play at cards, dice or any other game of the like kind, and even to look on at the playing of such games. Thus, a council held at Bordeaux in gladys knight winstar casino that the clergy were to abstain altogether from playing in public or in private at dice, cards, or any other forbidden and unbecoming game.
And Baronius defends the saint's doctrine.
Some authorities, such as Aubespine, have attempted to explain the severity of the ancient canons against gambling by supposing that idolatry was often connected with it in practice. About this page APA citation. Time bargains, difference transactions, options, and other speculative dealings on the exchanges, which are so common nowadays, add to the malice of gambling special evils of their own.
The issue must depend on chance, as in dice, or partly catholic view on gambling chance, partly on skill, as in whist. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The provincial Councils of Westminster are content with prescribing that clerics must abstain from unlawful games.
Other particular councils declared that playing at dice and cards was unbecoming and forbidden to clericsand in general they forbade all games which were unbecoming to the clerical state. In the opinion of St. It repeated the prohibition of the First Plenary Council of Baltimore that clerics are not to indulge in unlawful games, and only in moderation are to use those that are lawful, so as not to cause scandal.
Paulwho declared that what is not expedient, what is not edifying, is not allowed. Nowadays, it is commonly held that positive ecclesiastical law only forbids games of chance, even to the clergywhen in themselves or for some extrinsic reason, such as loss of time or scandalthey are forbidden by the natural law. It is, however, a matter on which both the civil and the canon law have much to say.
It is not gambling, in the strict sense, if a bet is laid on the issue of a game of skill like billiards or football. What is staked must belong to the gambler and must be at his free disposal.